The series of 111 of 937 known archaeological pile-dwelling sites, are located in six countries of the alpine and sub-alpine regions of Europe (Switzerland, Austria, France, Germany, Italy and Slovenia) and are the remains of prehistoric settlements dating from 5000 to 500 BC that are under water, on the banks of a lake, of rivers or in wetlands. The exceptional conditions of conservation for water-soaked organic materials, in combination within depth investigation and research in many fields of natural sciences in recent decades, it has come to know the first agrarian societies in Europe. The detailed information about their agriculture, animal husbandry, development of the metallurgical industry for a period of more than four millennia, coincides with one of the most important phases of recent human history: the dawn of modern societies. The series of pile-dwelling sites are one of the most important archaeological sources for the study of early agrarian societies in Europe. Of the 111 sites, 19 belong to Italy and are located in five regions: Lombardy (10), Veneto (4), Piedmont (2), Friuli Venezia Giulia (1) Trentino Alto Adige (2). The Italian town where you can immerse yourself in the prehistoric culture, starting from the pretty Isolino Virginia in Biandronno, in the Lake of Varese; other archaeological sites are also present in Polcenigo, Desenzano del Garda, Manerba del Garda, Peschiera del Garda, Muscoline, Piadena, Cavriana, Monzambano, Biandronno, Bodio Lomnago, Cadrezzate, Azeglio and Viverone, Arona, Ledro, Fiavè, Peschiera del Garda, Ceredigion and Arquà Petrarca. The series of pile-dwelling sites have provided an extraordinary and detailed vision of the settlements and the internal mode of prehistory and early agrarian communities on the shores of the lakes in the alpine and sub-alpine regions of Europe over the course of nearly 5000 years. Archaeological evidence has enabled a unique understanding of how these societies have interacted with the environment, in response to new technologies, and also to the impact of climate change.