Bologna is a city rich in history and culture. Many people who have gone from here, have left many examples: the Etruscans, the Gauls up to be Roman colony. Considered the cradle of culture, the city has seen the birth of one of the first universities in the world and it is still in the top positions in the ranking among the best Italian universities in the world. Enclosed within the walls, the old town is really fascinating, one of the best preserved in Europe full of ancient palaces, churches, works of art, reflecting the cultural significance that Bologna has had over the centuries. Famous symbol are the Towers of Bologna that rise along the road that leads into the real heart of the city that is Piazza Maggiore. On one side, it stands the imposing Basilica of San Petronio, with its unfinished facade; the cathedral of Bologna, however, is the Cathedral of St. Peter, not far. Also nearby there is Piazza del Nettuno, including the Fountain with a bronze statue of the god Neptune by Giambologna. All around San Petronio, among the civil buildings there are the Palazzo del Podesta, Palace of the Notaries and Palazzo dei Banchi. While, among the religious buildings to visit are the Church of St. Dominic, one of the most outstanding monuments of the city, the complex of Santo Stefano, which includes a number of religious buildings, and the Church of St. James Greater, with side porch and the precious cycle of frescos inside. Finally, the National Gallery houses works by Giotto and his school, Guido Reni, Guercino and the famous Ecstasy of St. Cecilia of Raphael. Outside the walls, on the hills, there is the important Sanctuary of the Madonna di San Luca, one of the most important and connected to the city by a long arcade which starts from Piazza di Porta Zaragoza. In the rest of the province, in Casalecchio di Reno, you can see the “Chiusa di Reno”, which was used to direct the waters of the river, necessary to move the factories in Bologna; in Sasso Marconi, inhabited in Etruscan and in Roman times, remains the aqueduct; while, Marzabotto, in addition to the remains of the charming Etruscan city discovered, is mentioned for the massacre of 1,830 civilians, made by the Germans during World War II and following which it erected the War Memorial.